Measurement Methods for Cross-Sections of Tunnels Using Reflectorless Total Stations

Document Type : Research


1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Geomatics Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Transportation, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Surveying and Geomatics Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, Iran


Owing to the technical and economic aspects of the project management, pre-estimating the volumes of excavating, shotcreting, and concreting operations have been of great importance for the underground construction industry, especially in metro and highway tunnels. In this respect, we offer a reliable method based on the trigonometric geometry for estimating the required parameters of the conventional tunnels that are manually excavated via explosions and road-header machines. To this end, a geodetic network consisting of dense benchmarks are firstly realized outside the trench and throughout the excavated tunnel. The cross-sections of the tunnel are then mapped in the coordinate frame attached to the reference lines after orienting the reflectorless total station with respect to the geodetic network points and the predesigned reference lines. Consequently, by comparing the resultant coordinates of each cross-section at the excavating, shotcreting, and concreting stages, one can arrive at accurate estimation of the corresponding thickness, areas and volumes during different phases of the tunnel construction. The performance of the proposed method has been evaluated as a function of the central angles between the consecutive points on the arc of tunnel cross-section via a simulated dataset from an assumed D-shape tunnel. The numerical results have indicated that in the case of the consecutive central angle of 25 deg the estimated thickness, area, and volume errors are about 0.0057 m, 0.199 m2, and 0.399 m3, which can be considered as a clear indication of the reliability and applicability of the presented method.


Main Subjects

Ardalan, A.A., Zakeri, S., Rezvani, M-H. and Heidaryan, A., 2016, Accurate and Swift Approach to As-Built Mapping in TBM-Excavated Tunnels. Journal of Surveying Engineering, 142(4), 04016016.
Cheng, Y-J., Qiu, W. and Lei, J., 2016, Automatic extraction of tunnel lining cross-sections from terrestrial laser scanning point clouds. Sensors, 16(10), 1648.
Gikas, V. and Daskalakis, S., 2008, Determining rail track axis geometry using satellite and terrestrial geodetic data. Survey Review, 40(310), 392–405.
Gikas, V., 2012, Three-Dimensional Laser Scanning for Geometry Documentation and Construction Management of Highway Tunnels during Excavation. Sensors, 12, 11249–11270.
Han, S., Cho, H., Kim, S., Jung, J. and Heo, J., 2013, Automated and efficient method for extraction of tunnel cross sections using terrestrial laser scanned data. Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering, 27(3), 274–281.
Liu, S-T. and Pan, G-R., 2013, Sources of errors and deformation analysis of laser scanning based tunnel deformation monitoring. Journal of Railway Engineering Society, 30(5), 69-74+81.
Nakai, T., Ryu, M., Miyauchi, H., Miura, S., Ohnishi, Y. and Nishiyama, S., 2005, Deformation monitoring of large tunnel wall under construction by digital photogrammetry measurement at Ritto Tunnel. Proceedings of ITA-AITES World Tunnel Congress and 31st General Assembly, Istanbul, Turkey, 2, 1203–1209.
Puente, I., Akinci, B., González-Jorge, H., Díaz-Vilariño, L. and Arias, P., 2016, A semi-automated method for extracting vertical clearance and cross sections in tunnels using mobile LiDAR data. Tunneling and Underground Space Technology, 59, 48–54.
Su, Y.Y., Hashash, Y.M.A. and Liu, L.Y., 2006, Integration of construction as-built data via laser scanning with geotechnical monitoring of urban excavation. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, ASCE, 132(12), 1234–1241.
Vezočnik, R., Ambrožič, T., Sterle, O., Bilban, G., Pfeifer, N. and Stopar, B., 2009, Use of terrestrial laser scanning technology for long term high precision deformation monitoring. Sensors, 9(12), 9873–9895.
Xu, L. and Wang, C-J., 2016, Research on the automated extraction of tunnel cross section. Journal of Railway Engineering Society, 33(8), 94–99.
Zhai, X-D., 2016, Brief analysis of the influence of the choice of engineering quota on the cost of railway tunnel engineering. Journal of Railway Engineering Society, 33(4), 106–111.