Document Type : Research Article
Atmospheric Science and Meteorological Research Center, Climate Research Institute, Mashhad, Iran.
Assistant Professor Climatological Research Institute Mashhad-Iran
Climate Research Institute
climate research institute
The maximum range of long-term operational predictions was limited to one year until 2018, while with the implementation of the Decadal Climate Prediction Project (DCPP), their range increased to a decade. These predictions are made by initializing global climate models using observational data. The current study aims to predict the precipitation and air temperature of Iran and the neighboring countries for the next 5 years (2022 to 2026) in three time scales of seasonal, annual and five-year, using the output of DCPP models initialized in November 2021. For this purpose, the precipitation and temperature coarse data of the MPI-ESM1.2-LR (Max Plank Institute in Germany), MIROC6 (Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology) and CNRM-ESM2-1 (Centre National de Recherches Meteorologiques, France) models were used. The horizontal resolution of the MPI-ESM1.2-LR, MIROC6 and CNRM-ESM2-1 models are 200×200, 250×250 and 250×250, respectively. The correction of the output of the climate models was done based on the standard methodology proposed by the WCRP (World Climate Research Program) working group of World Meteorological Organization (WMO). To correct the raw output of precipitation and temperature of the DCPP models, the GPCC and ERA5 datasets were used for precipitation and temperature, respectively. The results showed that Iran's precipitation is unlikely to be more than normal in any of the next five years. The highest decrease in precipitation will likely occur in 2022 and 2025, and the precipitation of the 2023 will most likely be normal. The high predictability of ENSO and the expectation of El Niño occurrence in 2023 confirm that the precipitation of Iran and neighboring countries is within the normal range for 2023. It is more likely that, in none of the next 5 years, the average temperature of the Iran is not below normal, and the temperature anomaly is at least in the range of 0.3-0.5 degree Celsius, and the largest increase is expected in the western half of the Iran and the northeast of the region under study. The minimum and maximum temperature increase will most likely occur in 2022 and 2026 over Iran. In the studied period, the precipitation of West Asia, especially the areas adjacent to the Arabian Sea and the Red Sea, is most likely more than normal and other countries are estimated to be within the normal range. Also, the average air temperature of the next five years in West Asia will be between 0.3 and 1.2 degree of Celsius above normal, with the largest increase of 1 to 1.2 degrees occurring in eastern Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. It is expected that the air temperature anomaly in the Arabian Peninsula will be in the range of 0.3 to 0.5 degrees, which will be about 0.5 degrees lower than other countries in the region.