عنوان مقاله [English]
Weather forecasting and monitoring systems based on numerical weather forecasting models have been increasingly used to manage issues related to meteorology and agriculture. Using more accurate minimum and maximum temperature forecasts can be helpful in this regard. But systematic and random errors in the model affect the accuracy of forecasts. In this study, the model errors during the 5 and 14 days training period in the same climate areas on the points of the network where the observations are available are calculated.Then the errors are generalized on all points of the network using the cokriging interpolation method. This, preserves the model forecasts for other points of the network and only error values are applied to them. To better evaluate the model, the spatial and temporal distribution of the maximum and minimum temperature forecast errors are also investigated in the country. Observed daily maximum and minimum temperatures data from 560 meteorological stations for the period 1/11/2019 to 1/2/2021 are used to evaluate the WRF model. The WRF model is run daily at 12UTC, with a forecast time of 120 hours. And first 12 hours of each run is consider as the model spin-up and is not used in errors calculation. In order to correct the maximum and minimum temperature forecast errors for next three days (forecasts of 36, 60 and 84 hours), the forecasts for each day in the period of 11/1/ 2019 to 1/2/2021, is extracted from the model outputs. In order to evaluate the error correction method, the skill score index is used. The validation results of the error correction method shows that the absolute mean error value, correlation coefficient and RMSE are improved after the error correction compared to results that were before the error correction. This shows that the error correction method can be used for other network points that do not contain observational data. The results shows that the RMSE of the raw model maximum (minimum) temperatures forecasts for next three days is approximately 6 degrees Celsius (5 degrees Celsius), which after error correction reaches 2 degrees Celsius (4 degrees Celsius). Also the value of correlation coefficient, after correcting for the model error, has a significant increase compared to the raw model output. The average skill score for the raw minimum and maximum temperature forecast for more than 50% of the days is more than -1 and -1.9, respectively, but after correction, the model skill scores become closer to one and for more than 75 percentage of days that reach above zero. Without exception, all climatic regions after error correction have a higher skill score than before error correction, so that the model skill score for most climatic regions after error correction reaches above zero for more than 75% of the days. Before error correction, the warm semi-humid zone has the lowest average skill score for forecasting maximum and minimum temperatures among climatic zones, but after error correction it reaches the highest value among other zones. In general, for areas with hot and dry climates, the raw output skill score for predicting the minimum temperature in July, August, and September is minimized. The 14-day error correction method did not improve the modeling skill score much compared to the 5-day error correction method, and they acted almost similarly. In areas with high elevation gradient, the model error increases. In general, model underestimates the maximum and minimum temperatures in most areas. Knowing the spatial and temporal distribution of model forecast error can be helpful for researchers to have an overview of the areas (and months) where the model forecast error is high.