Spatial Analysis of PM2.5 Concentration over Iraq during the Period (2003-2020)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 Atmospheric Sci Dept., Mustansiriyah university

2 Mustansiriyah uni.

3 Mustansiriyah University – College of Sciences- Atmosphere Dept.

چکیده

The particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 μm (PM2.5) concentration seriously impacts the environment, climate, and human health. PM2.5 emissions are caused by anthropogenic or natural sources and are still a problem worldwide. In this study, monthly, seasonal, and annual spatial distributions of PM2.5 concentrations were analyzed over Iraq for the period (2003 to 2020) by use of the geographic information system technique. The results indicated that the PM2.5 concentration was higher in summer than in winter and autumn. The monthly mean maximum values of PM2.5 occurred during June and July with 8.4 and 8.7 µg/m3 over central and southern regions of Iraq, respectively, while monthly means of minimum values were observed during November over northern and western regions. These results concluded that the magnitude of outdoor PM2.5 concentrations varies among seasons and regions. Also, the annual means of PM2.5 less than the standard maximum permissible limits, and their seasonal means were smaller than this limit at all seasons.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Spatial Analysis of PM2.5 Concentration over Iraq during the Period (2003-2020)

نویسنده [English]

  • Monim Khalaf 1
1 Atmospheric Sci Dept., Mustansiriyah university
چکیده [English]

The particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 μm (PM2.5) concentration seriously impacts the environment, climate, and human health. PM2.5 emissions are caused by anthropogenic or natural sources and are still a problem worldwide. In this study, monthly, seasonal, and annual spatial distributions of PM2.5 concentrations were analyzed over Iraq for the period (2003 to 2020) by use of the geographic information system technique. The results indicated that the PM2.5 concentration was higher in summer than in winter and autumn. The monthly mean maximum values of PM2.5 occurred during June and July with 8.4 and 8.7 µg/m3 over central and southern regions of Iraq, respectively, while monthly means of minimum values were observed during November over northern and western regions. These results concluded that the magnitude of outdoor PM2.5 concentrations varies among seasons and regions. Also, the annual means of PM2.5 less than the standard maximum permissible limits, and their seasonal means were smaller than this limit at all seasons.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • PM2.5
  • Spatial analysis
  • Inverse distance weighting
  • Statistical analysis
  • Iraq