مطالعه عنصری هواویز‌های ریزشی شهر یزد با بهره‌گیری از روش بیناب‌نگاری فروشکست القایی لیزری

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، دانشکده فیزیک، دانشگاه یزد، یزد، ایران

2 استادیار، دانشکده فیزیک، دانشگاه یزد، یزد، ایران

چکیده

امروزه یکی از مهم‌ترین عوامل آلاینده‌های محیطی در مناطق خشک و نیمه‌‌خشک وجود زیاد ذرات بسیار ریز هواویز در هوا است. نخستین گام برای مهار و کاهش اثرات مخرب هواویزها، مطالعه و شناسایی دقیق ساختار و ویژگی‌های عنصری ذرات هواویز است. هدف از این پژوهش مشخصه‌یابی ساختاری و عنصری هواویز‌های ریزشی شهر یزد از جمله توزیع اندازه ذرات، ریخت‌شناسی و تحلیل عنصری این دسته از ذرات است. بدین‌منظور در این مقاله از ابزارهای شناسایی ساختاری و عنصری از جمله SEM، EDX، LIBS و XRD بهره برده شده است. مطالعه عنصری نمونه‌ها با استفاده از روش بیناب­نگاری فروشکست القایی لیزری (LIBS) صورت گرفت و در مجموع 74 خط نشری اتمی پلاسمای تولید شده مشاهده شد. در نتیجه تجزیه‌وتحلیل بینابی خطوط نشری منجر به شناسایی عناصری مانند کلسیم، سیلیسیم، آهن، منیزیوم، آلومینیوم، کربن، پتاسیم، سدیم، استرانسیوم، منگنز، تیتانیوم، کبالت، باریم، وانادیوم و سرب شد. نتایج حاصل از الگو‌های پراش پرتو ایکس (XRD) وجود کانی‌هایی از گروه‌های سیلیکات، کربنات‌ و فسفات و با فراوانی غالب کانی‌های کوارتز و کلسیت را نشان داده است. همچنین در بررسی شکل و اندازه هواویزها با استفاده از تصاویر SEM، این نتیجه حاصل شده است که بیشتر هواویزها، دارای شکل‌های کشیده، منشوری، کروی، نامنظم و چند‌وجهی با اندازه بین ۱ تا ۳۰ میکرومتر با فراوانی بیشینه اندازه ذرات بین ۲ تا ۷ میکرومتر هستند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Elemental analysis of air-full dust in World heritage city of Yazd by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nafise Sedighi 1
  • Mohammad Ali Haddad 2
1 M.Sc. Student, Department of Physics, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Physics, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran
چکیده [English]

The dust and the environmental pollutions caused by dust storms are a serious environmental hazard, particularly in arid and semi-arid civilian regions in the world. Controlling and decreasing the harmful or undesirable effects of dust can be achieved by accurately identifying and analyzing dust samples. For this goal, various elemental analysis methods are commonly used for identifying and characterizing dust materials.
The City of Yazd (UNESCO Heritage Center) is located in Iran's central region. It is surrounded by many industrial, mineral sites, and deserts. The city's urban areas suffer air pollution due to seasonal wind, the lack of annual rainfall, and dust storms. Hence, the dust concentration reaches higher than of standard limits occasionally in this city. In this paper, a study to characterize and analyze the falling-dust in Yazd city is reported. Initially, the sampling procedure was conducted at five different locations for two months using marble dust collectors. The size distributions and morphology of dust samples were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction technique (XRD). Moreover, samples' elemental composition was analyzed using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDX) and distinctly, Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIB). The analysis of SEM images and XRD patterns of dust particles allows studying the dust's size and morphology of samples. The size of 1 to 30 microns was estimated for the dust particles with the maximum size distributions between 2 to 7 microns. Also, capsular, triangular, spherical, irregular, and polyhedral shapes are revealed by recorded particles' images. The XRD analyses show the existence of silicates, carbonates, phosphates mineral groups, calcites, quartz, gypsum, magnesium carbonate, and aluminum phosphates components in samples.
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a non-contact, fast response, high sensitivity, real-time, and multi-elemental analytical detection technique based on emission spectroscopy to measure the elemental composition. The elemental characterization of powder samples was carried out by investigating the emission spectra of breakdown plasma in the sample region. A 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser operating at high energy (100 mJ, 1 to 20 Hz), was focused on the surface of the tiny amount of powder sample to form an emitting plasma. The emission of produced plasma from the sample was collected by eight optical fibers and was detected by the spectrometer. The applied experimental setup allowed to record spectra in the range of 200 to 1200 nm with a spectral resolution of 0.4 nm. In total, 74 atomic emission lines of generated plasma were analyzed. Spectral analysis of obtained spectra enables to identify several elements such as calcium, silicon, iron, magnesium, aluminum, carbon, and other elements with less abundance such as potassium, sodium, strontium, manganese, titanium, cobalt, vanadium, barium and lead in the elemental composition of dust samples. The results deduced using the LIBS technique agree unambiguously with results obtained by EDX analysis of dust samples in this work. It is found that Laser-Induced Breakdown spectroscopy is a rapid, reliable, and powerful analytical tool for the diagnostic and detection of multiple elements for solid dust samples. Also, this technique is comparable with standard methods such as atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) for chemical and elemental analysis of urban, mineral, and industrial dust.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Dust
  • morphological
  • Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy
  • X-ray diffraction
  • Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy
  • scanning electron microscope
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